A Commission set up by the Government in January 2000 under the Chairmanship of Dr. C. Rangarajan reviewed the statistical system and the entire gamut of Official Statistics in the country. The Rangarajan Commission submitted its report to the Government in August 2001. One of the key recommendations of this Commission was to establish a permanent National Commission on Statistics to serve as a nodal and empowered body for all core statistical activities of the country, evolve, monitor and enforce statistical priorities and standards and to ensure statistical co-ordination among the different agencies involved. The Rangarajan Commission also recommended that the Commission be set up initially through a Government order.
In line with the recommendations of the Rangarajan Commission, on 1st June 2005, the Government of India resolved to set up a National Statistical Commission (NSC). The Commission has a part-time Chairperson, four part-time Members and an ex-officio Member. The Chief Statistician of India, the post created specifically as the Head of the National Statistical Office is the Secretary of the Commission. He is also the Secretary to the Government of India in the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation.